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Nov 28

Although no major differences between natural and artificial fluoridation were apparent, the evidence was inadequate for a conclusion about any differences. Expert Spotlight, Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment, http://www.nsf.org/business/water_distribution/pdf/NSF_Fact_Sheet.pdf, Register for reporter access to contact details, Newswise Live - ", "Reviews of evidence on interventions to prevent dental caries, oral and pharyngeal cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries", Israel Has Officially Banned Fluoridation of Its Drinking Water, "Salt fluoridation in Europe and in Latin America – with potential worldwide", "Salt fluoridation in Central and Eastern Europe", "Dr. Erhardts ("Hunter'sche") Fluoridpastillen", "Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries", "From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [13] A 2007 Australian systematic review used the same inclusion criteria as York's, plus one additional study. [57] Other sources include dental products other than toothpaste; air pollution from fluoride-containing coal or from phosphate fertilizers; trona, used to tenderize meat in Tanzania; and tea leaves, particularly the tea bricks favored in parts of China. High fluoride levels have been found in other foods, including barley, cassava, corn, rice, taro, yams, and fish protein concentrate. [10][22] Opponents of the practice argue that neither the benefits nor the risks have been studied adequately, and debate the conflict between what might be considered mass medication and individual liberties. [12][13] Other adverse effects lack sufficient evidence to reach a confident conclusion. [9], Health and dental organizations worldwide have endorsed its safety and effectiveness. In 2004, an estimated 13.7 million people in western Europe and 194 million in the U.S. received artificially fluoridated water. Typically a fluoridated compound is added to Fluoride-containing toothpaste should only be used with children under the age of two if recommended by your child’s doctor or dentist. At least six Central European countries (Hungary, the Czech and Slovak Republics, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania) have shown some interest in salt fluoridation; however, significant usage of approximately 35% was only achieved in the Czech Republic. [61] In 2010, approximately 60 gallons of fluoride were released into the water supply in Asheboro, North Carolina in 90 minutes—an amount that was intended to be released in a 24-hour period. [63] Although it has been hypothesized that hydrofluosilicic acid and sodium silicofluoride might increase human lead uptake from water, a 2006 statistical analysis did not support concerns that these chemicals cause higher blood lead concentrations in children. [12] There is no clear association between fluoridation and cancer or deaths due to cancer, both for cancer in general and also specifically for bone cancer and osteosarcoma. [3] A 2004 World Health Organization review stated that water fluoridation, when it is culturally acceptable and technically feasible, has substantial advantages in preventing tooth decay, especially for subgroups at high risk. Kids + Chemical Safety is administered by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA), a non-profit and tax-exempt organization that conducts scientific research and development on risk issues in a transparent and collaborative fashion. [13], Reviews have shown that water fluoridation reduces cavities in children. [105], U.S. data from 1974 to 1992 indicate that when water fluoridation is introduced into a community, there are significant decreases in the number of employees per dental firm and the number of dental firms. [83] On 26 August 2014, Israel stopped mandating fluoridation, stating "Only some 1% of the water is used for drinking, while 99% of the water is intended for other uses (industry, agriculture, flushing toilets etc.). It is recommended that use of fluoride-containing toothpaste begin when your child is two years old. [48], Existing evidence suggests that water fluoridation reduces tooth decay. [82], Naturally fluoridated water is used by approximately 4% of the world's population, in countries including Argentina, France, Gabon, Libya, Mexico, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, the U.S., and Zimbabwe. Dental fluorosis can occur when children regularly consume higher-than-recommended amounts of fluoride during the teeth-forming years (age 8 and younger). Rivers and lakes generally contain fluoride levels less than 0.5 mg/L, but groundwater, particularly in volcanic or mountainous areas, can contain as much as 50 mg/L. [68] Although some systemic (whole-body) fluoride returns to the saliva via blood plasma, and to unerupted teeth via plasma or crypt fluid, there is little data to determine what percentages of fluoride's anticavity effect comes from these systemic mechanisms. [73], Fluoride toothpaste is the most widely used and rigorously evaluated fluoride treatment. [15] Dental sealants are effective as well,[24] with estimates of prevented cavities ranging from 33% to 86%, depending on age of sealant and type of study. Fluoride mouthwash and gel are about as effective as fluoride toothpaste; fluoride varnish prevents about 45% of cavities. The review found that the evidence was of moderate quality: few studies attempted to reduce observer bias, control for confounding factors, report variance measures, or use appropriate analysis. [9][16][49] A conclusion for the efficacy in adults is less clear with some reviews finding benefit and others not. [15], Milk fluoridation is practiced by the Borrow Foundation in some parts of Bulgaria, Chile, Peru, Russia, Macedonia, Thailand and the UK. Using fluoride in water to protect teeth reduces the need for costly dental procedures. [14] Higher concentrations of fluorine are found in alkaline volcanic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, and other rocks derived from highly evolved magmas and hydrothermal solutions, and this fluorine dissolves into nearby water as fluoride. New Zealand, which led the world in per-capita sugar consumption and had the world's worst teeth, began fluoridation in 1953, and by 1968 fluoridation was used by 65% of the population served by a piped water supply. However, these values differ greatly among the world's regions: for example, in Sichuan, China the average daily fluoride intake is only 0.1 mg/day in drinking water but 8.9 mg/day in food and 0.7 mg/day directly from the air due to the use of high-fluoride soft coal for cooking and drying foodstuffs indoors. [73] By comparison, brushing with a nonfluoride toothpaste has little effect on cavities. In 1931, an Alcoa chemist, H.V. [16], Public water fluoridation was first practiced in the U.S.[17] As of 2012, 25 countries have artificial water fluoridation to varying degrees, 11 of them have more than 50% of their population drinking fluoridated water. Larger water systems have lower per capita cost, and the cost is also affected by the number of fluoride injection points in the water system, the type of feeder and monitoring equipment, the fluoride chemical and its transportation and storage, and water plant personnel expertise. [13] Fluoride's effects depend on the total daily intake of fluoride from all sources. [78] Other agents to prevent tooth decay include antibacterials such as chlorhexidine and sugar substitutes such as xylitol. In most drinking waters, over 95% of total fluoride is the F− ion, with the magnesium–fluoride complex (MgF+) being the next most common. In very unusual instances, pits may form in the teeth. [94], In the 1930s and early 1940s, H. Trendley Dean and colleagues at the newly created U.S. National Institutes of Health published several epidemiological studies suggesting that a fluoride concentration of about 1 mg/L was associated with substantially fewer cavities in temperate climates, and that it increased fluorosis but only to a level that was of no medical or aesthetic concern. 265 Turkey Sag Trail, Suite 102, #110, Palmyra VA 22963, Newswise [5], Pitcher or faucet-mounted water filters do not alter fluoride content; the more-expensive reverse osmosis filters remove 65–95% of fluoride, and distillation removes all fluoride. The correct use of fluoride treatments and fluoride-containing toothpaste can be discussed with your child’s dentist. By 2000, however, the topical effects of fluoride (in both water and toothpaste) were well understood, and it had become known that a constant low level of fluoride in the mouth works best to prevent cavities. [97] By 2006, 69.2% of the U.S. population on public water systems were receiving fluoridated water, amounting to 61.5% of the total U.S. population; 3.0% of the population on public water systems were receiving naturally occurring fluoride. Fluoride also helps to repair damaged tooth enamel. The first (c. 1801–1933) was research into the cause of a form of mottled tooth enamel called the Colorado brown stain. Event in In addition, fluoride is intentionally added to the public water supplies, because it has been demonstrated that communities with fluoride added to their water supplies have significantly reduced incidence of tooth decay in children.

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