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More surprising are small forms of life such as sea cucumbers and free-swimming snails found in both polar oceans. The Antarctic Peninsula began to form during the Jurassic period (206–146 Ma), and islands gradually rose out of the ocean. [17] In 1978-79 Michele Eileen Raney became the first woman to winter at the South Pole.[18]. Since about 15 Ma, the continent has been mostly covered with ice. The two expeditions started from Hercules Inlet a day apart, with Gamme starting first, but completing according to plan the last few kilometres together. Researchers include biologists, geologists, oceanographers, physicists, astronomers, glaciologists, and meteorologists. The fossils had been found over 100 years ago in Koonwarra, Australia, but in sediment which had accumulated under a lake which had been near to the South Pole millions of years ago. [167][168] The net contribution to sea level from the Antarctic Peninsula is more likely to be a direct result of the much greater atmospheric warming there. In 1984, Juan Pablo Camacho was born at the Frei Montalva Station, becoming the first Chilean born in Antarctica. The name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική (antarktiké), feminine of ἀνταρκτικός (antarktikós),[9] meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north". For this reason, directions at the Pole are given relative to "grid north", which points northward along the prime meridian. The Roman authors Hyginus and Apuleius (1–2 centuries CE) used for the South Pole the romanised Greek name polus antarcticus,[12][13] from which derived the Old French pole antartike (modern pôle antarctique) attested in 1270, and from there the Middle English pol antartik in a 1391 technical treatise by Geoffrey Chaucer (modern Antarctic Pole). In 1969, a Japanese expedition discovered nine meteorites. Precipitation is low (most of Antarctica is a desert) and almost always in the form of snow, which accumulates and forms a giant ice sheet which covers the land. [1] Despite these new acts, unregulated and illegal fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish (marketed as Chilean Sea Bass in the U.S.), remains a serious problem. The geographic center of America can be found in the state of North Dakota. [70] After that, the Pleistocene ice age covered the whole continent and destroyed all major plant life on it.[71]. The South Pole is at an altitude of 9,300 feet (2,800 m) but feels like 11,000 feet (3,400 m). Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60° S for the purposes of the Treaty System. The geographic coordinates of the South Pole are usually given simply as 90°S, since its longitude is geometrically undefined and irrelevant. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole. [citation needed] Several Antarctic ice streams, which account for about 10% of the ice sheet, flow to one of the many Antarctic ice shelves: see ice-sheet dynamics. [64] It was during this era that Gondwana began to break up. [149], In January 2013, an 18 kg (40 lb) meteorite was discovered frozen in ice on the Nansen ice field by a Search for Antarctic Meteorites, Belgian Approach (SAMBA) mission.[150]. Other dormant volcanoes may potentially be active. [44], This article is about the Geographic South Pole. On 9 January 1909, with three companions, he reached 88°23' S – 112 miles (180 km) from the Pole – before being forced to turn back.[16]. Large animals such as some cetaceans and birds make the round trip annually. The overland journey was never made. There are about 100 species of mosses and 25 species of liverworts, but only three species of flowering plants, all of which are found in the Antarctic Peninsula: Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass), Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort) and the non-native Poa annua (annual bluegrass). In Eastern Antarctica, seed ferns or pteridosperms became abundant and large amounts of sandstone and shale were laid down at this time. The settlements included Grytviken, Leith Harbour, King Edward Point, Stromness, Husvik, Prince Olav Harbour, Ocean Harbour and Godthul. They proposed instead that a comprehensive regime to protect the Antarctic environment be negotiated in its place. [55], Antarctica is home to more than 70 lakes that lie at the base of the continental ice sheet. A total of 37,506 tourists visited during the 2006–07 Austral summer with nearly all of them coming from commercial ships; 38,478 were recorded in 2015–16. ", "Preliminary Report: Record Temperatures at South Pole (and nearby AWS sites…)", Your stay at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, "NASA-USGS Landsat 8 Satellite Pinpoints Coldest Spots on Earth", Initial environmental evaluation – development of blue-ice and compacted-snow runways, "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Amundsen–Scott", "Klimatafel von Amundsen - Scott / Südpol-Station (USA) / Antarktis", "Amundsen–Scott Climate Normals 1961−1990", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "There used to be fluffy dinosaurs at the South Pole", Historic Sites and Monuments in Antarctica, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=South_Pole&oldid=989221091, Historic Sites and Monuments of Antarctica, Articles with dead external links from May 2013, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2016, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net (temperatures, 1981–2010, extremes 1957–present), Listen to Ernest Shackleton describing his 1908, The recording describing Shackleton's 1908 South Pole Expedition was added to the, This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 19:05.

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