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Nov 28

Original: Lyme disease is an inflammatory disease caused by a bacterium transmitted by ticks (small bloodsucking arachnids that attach themselves to larger animals). Paraphrasing is most effective and useful when you think about it as a way to explain someone else’s ideas in relation to, or in the context of, your own argument. Effective Paraphrasing Strategies If you are having trouble paraphrasing a text effectively, try following these steps: Reread the original passage you wish to paraphrase, looking up any words you do not recognize, until you think you understand the full meaning of and intention behind the author's words. Original:  Although only about one-tenth of the world’s population lives there, sub-Saharan Africa remains the hardest hit region, accounting for 72 percent of the people infected with HIV during 2000. Original: In the northeastern United States, people are building homes on the edge of woods, where ticks that carry Lyme disease hitch rides on deer. Why? It is not sufficient to simply replace the keywords with synonyms and in fact this is a common mistake among students learning to paraphrase. This step helps to accomplish both #1 and #2, above. Step 3: Put the article away and, using only your point-form notes, explain the most important idea(s) to someone else. To do these things, an acceptable paraphrase must also change the structure of the author’s expression. Commonly, paraphrasing is expressed as “restating someone else’s ideas in your own words.” While this is technically accurate, it can lead students to believe that paraphrasing is simply about finding synonyms to replace the words in the original author’s text. Reproduced by permission. You would have to come up with the text that you want to paraphrase, and the online article rewriter will produce fresh and unique content. The main reasons for paraphrasing is to add relevance to your work while taking into account the opinions and ideas of other authors. Once you understand those ideas, you can “zoom out” and explain the most important idea (or ideas) in your own way. You include in-text citation, including the author’s last name and (for APA style) the year of publication. Rewrite the material using your own words, but without changing the meaning. If you use only one of these techniques when paraphrasing, you have not paraphrased effectively. Paraphrase: Every year, more than a million people are killed by malaria, and most of the victims are children who live in sub-Saharan Africa (Angier, 2001). Paraphrase: Approximately 10 percent of the world’s population resides in sub-Saharan Africa. Paraphrase: The government of the United States announced that AIDS could harm the nation's security. In a conversation – a meeting or coaching session, for example – paraphrasing is a good way to make sure that you have correctly understood what the other person has said. The author has signalled that the idea comes from the source They Say/I Say (this signalling can be done within the sen… You will notice that this example uses very few of the same words as the original quotation (i.e., it has been put into the author’s “own words”). Here is an example of an effective paraphrase of the quotation above: Graff and Birkenstein (2014) argue throughout their book They Say/I Say that writing is a conversation. They Say/I Say by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. Original: Minority groups in the United States have been hit hardest by the epidemic. When writers are new to paraphrasing, they might think it’s acceptable to simply substitute certain words with synonyms. Step 1: Read a paragraph from an article that you find interesting or that you are using to write a paper. Check for updates + details on online services, limited study space + more. If you use only one of these techniques when paraphrasing, you have not paraphrased effectively. Caution: When paraphrasing, do not change key terms or proper nouns. Paraphrasing Techniques Paraphrasing is important as it helps to add importance and value to your work. Without looking at the source, jot down in points whatever you have understood from the text. Change the sentence structure and use different connecting words. An effective paraphrase includes more than one of the following techniques. Paraphrase: According to Mark Walters, a veterinarian who wrote Six Modern Plagues, the disease could have arrived in numerous ways (Peterson, 2004). Substituting synonyms for some of the author’s original words does not explain the source, highlight its importance, or show the reader how the source helps convey the paper’s argument. Check for updates + details on online services, limited study space + more. In addition, in Africa, hunters bring back the meat of animals that scientists think may transmit Ebola, a usually fatal disease that causes massive hemorrhaging in its victims. Articles, books, media (Library catalogue), Graduate writing, learning + research (RC), Accessing online resources from off campus.

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