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Nov 28

In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich. In contrast, chronic exposure, which is seen more frequently, causes delayed or impaired mineralization of bones and teeth. In England, this translates to nearly three million individuals who have fluorosed teeth to some degree. Fluoride is hazardous and can cause toxicity. In soft waters with low ionic content, invertebrates and fishes may suffer adverse effects from fluoride concentration as low as 0.5 mg/L. [clarification needed][28] Thyroid effects in humans were associated with fluoride levels 0.05–0.13 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was adequate and 0.01–0.03 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was inadequate. Most cases of fluoride poisoning arise because people consume groundwater that’s filled with it. Fog and other conditions in this industrialized area were associated with 60 deaths and thousands of people developing illnesses. THIS WEBSITE USES COOKIES. [20]:281 Those with impaired kidney function are more susceptible to adverse effects.[20]:292. As of 2015, the United States Health and Human Services Department recommends a maximum of 0.7 milligrams of fluoride per liter of water – updating and replacing the previous recommended range of 0.7 to 1.2 milligrams issued in 1962. A major cause of fluorosis is the inappropriate use of fluoride-containing dental products such as toothpaste and mouth rinses. For example, taking a higher-than-prescribed amount of a fluoride supplement during early childhood can cause it. [32] Ingested fluoride initially acts locally on the intestinal mucosa, where it forms hydrofluoric acid in the stomach. Fluoride is hazardous and can cause toxicity. Excessive exposure can lead to tooth discoloration and bone problems. Dental fluorosis is a non-hereditary disorder that is solely caused by the ingestion of fluoride while teeth are developing. [29], Fluoride accumulates in the bone tissues of fish and in the exoskeleton of aquatic invertebrates. The carbon–fluorine bond is too strong to release fluoride[citation needed]. [22][23][24], Within the recommended dose, no effects are expected, but chronic ingestion in excess of 12 mg/day are expected to cause adverse effects, and an intake that high is possible when fluoride levels are around 4 mg/L. Acute fluoride exposure at high concentrations will cause corrosive damage to tissues. In this instance, gaseous releases from zinc, steel, wire, and nail galvanizing industries have been suspected of causing 20 deaths and six thousand people to become ill as a result of fluoride poisoning. Early stages are not clinically obvious, and may be misdiagnosed as (seronegative) rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis. Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Acute fluoride exposure at high concentrations will cause corrosive damage to tissues. The kidney injury is characterised by failure to concentrate urine, leading to polyuria, and subsequent dehydration with hypernatremia and hyperosmolarity. In 1979, after up to 50 ppm fluoride was added to the Annapolis, Maryland, public water system, Dr. John Yiamouyiannis worked with another doctor to conduct a clinical survey on 112 people who believed they were experiencing reactions to the fluoride. Matt Hopcraft, an associate professor at the Melbourne Dental School, told AFP via email on November 24, 2020, that one would have to consume very high levels of toothpaste and tap water for the fluoride in it to be toxic.. Hopcraft explained that a toxic dose of fluoride is 5mg per kilogram of body weight, meaning that for a 70kg adult, it would … The FDA warning is necessary because relatively small doses of fluoride can induce symptoms of acute fluoride toxicity (i.e., poisoning). The U.S. National Research Council concludes that fractures with fluoride levels 1–4 mg/L, suggesting a dose-response relationship, but states that there is "suggestive but inadequate for drawing firm conclusions about the risk or safety of exposures at [2 mg/L]". [5], Historically, most cases of acute fluoride toxicity have followed accidental ingestion of sodium fluoride based insecticides or rodenticides. It is probably best known for playing an important role in dental health by preventing dental caries and assisting with tooth strength. Compared to unfluoridated water, fluoridation to 1 mg/L is estimated to cause fluorosis in one of every 6 people (range 4–21), and to cause fluorosis of aesthetic concern in one of every 22 people (range 13.6–∞). [10] Other sources include glass-etching or chrome-cleaning agents like ammonium bifluoride or hydrofluoric acid,[11][12] industrial exposure to fluxes used to promote the flow of a molten metal on a solid surface, volcanic ejecta (for example, in cattle grazing after an 1845–1846 eruption of Hekla and the 1783–1784 flood basalt eruption of Laki), and metal cleaners.

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