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Nov 28

Leaf transpiration is the main source of evapotranspiration from forests and, at some cost during dry years, give up much of its valuable water to the Earth's atmosphere. 2009). 2015). 2007). Am J Bot 76(3):465–469, Spracklen DV, Arnold SR, Taylor CM (2012) Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests. Thus such particles influence cloud formation and precipitation. For. 2017; Wei et al. Tree Physiol 27:577–584, Marotzke J, Jakob C, Bony S, Dirmeyer PA, O'Gorman PA, Hawkins E, Perkins-Kirkpatrick S, Le Quere C, Nowicki S, Paulavets K (2017) Climate research must sharpen its view. As another example, while forest loss generally reduces BVOC emissions, some land uses are major sources. While global precipitation held relatively constant over recent decades, observations indicate that increases occurred over the tropical oceans and higher latitudes (much of North America and Eurasia), while declines occurred over Africa and various mid latitudes (notably the Mediterranean and southern Asia) (Trenberth 2011; Adler et al. So, for example, while there was optimism that increasing tree cover in the arid regions of northern China would increase rainfall and initiate wider greening even without explicit attention to long-range water transport (e.g., Jiang and Liang 2013), recent appraisals suggest little progress in the driest areas (Ahrends et al. While atmospheric aerosol particles include mineral dust, smoke and marine salts, many biological materials are also involved, e.g., bacteria, archaea, viruses, pollen, spores and organic debris (Després et al. PLoS One 12:e0182869, PubMed  1994; Vanclay 2009). J Hydrol 315:274–294, Maggioni V, Meyers PC, Robinson MD (2016) A review of merged high-resolution satellite precipitation product accuracy during the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) era. In general, chemical changes mean that most of these organic compounds lose their volatility due to reactions with other molecules, sunlight and radiation (e.g., Cappa 2016). 2014; Hara et al. 2012). About three quarters of these VOCs are relatively reactive and last less than one day in the atmosphere, with most, including isoprene and pinene, surviving just a few hours (Guenther et al. The main constituent appears to be isoprene (~ 44%) with most of the rest comprised of various monoterpenes such as pinene (~ 11%) and other oxygenated carbon compounds (Guenther et al. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3717-7, Loescher HW, Gholz HL, Jacobs JM, Oberbauer SF (2005) Energy dynamics and modeled evapotranspiration from a wet tropical forest in Costa Rica. Edmund Halley, a contemporary of Isaac Newton and still widely known for predicting the periodicity of a comet, first suggested that global atmospheric circulation was determined by temperature gradients (Halley 1686). 2009; Yue et al. 2013). For example, observations near the coast of Southern Norway (Birkenes) indicate that atmospheric concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (active at − 8 °C) increase after rain from May to mid- September but are supressed once snow lies across the landscape. Reliability and variation in precipitation matter. Rev Geophys 52:750–808, Rosenfeld D, Bell TL (2011) Why do tornados and hailstorms rest on weekends? New ideas, methods and data offer opportunities to improve understanding. The models used by climate scientists to simulate global climate and investigate how it changes—General Circulation Models, Global Climate Models, and Earth System Models (henceforth “models”)—have become increasingly sophisticated. J Atmos Sci 63:2642–2652, Wada Y, van Beek LPH, van Kempen CM, Reckman JWTM, Vasak S, Bierkens MFP (2010) Global depletion of groundwater resources. tai, China. The switch between dry and wet conditions found in monsoon climates arises from the positive feedbacks that occur as the predominant difference in evaporation rates kick the prevailing winds from a land-to-sea to a sea-to-land configuration (Makarieva and Gorshkov 2007; Sheil and Murdiyarso 2009; Makarieva et al. J Clim 21:2680–2696. As an example, one study collected three cloud water samples taken from one site in France (Dôme Mountain Meteorological Station) and detected genetic material from more than 28,000 distinct species of bacteria (30 phyla and 286 genera) along with 2600 eukaryotes (from 12 phyla primarily fungi) (Amato et al. The control of these pores determines the exchange of gases, including water vapour and carbon dioxide, between the plants’ intercellular space and the external atmosphere. Science 337:809–810, Reinberg A, Smolensky MH, Touitou Y (2016) The full moon as a synchronizer of circa-monthly biological rhythms: chronobiologic perspectives based on multidisciplinary naturalistic research. The increasing desiccation, and more frequent droughts, can result in tree death, increased flammability, fires, and further drought (Zemp et al. Observing how air pressure, vegetation behaviour, and precipitation vary over the diurnal and monsoon cycle can provide key insights. 2014). Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:185–228, Bucci SJ, Goldstein G, Scholz FG, Meinzer FC (2016) Physiological significance of hydraulic segmentation, nocturnal transpiration and capacitance in tropical trees: paradigms revisited. This difference in pressure with altitude generates circulation such that the moist column (where most condensation is occurring) will draw in low-level air from the drier region, and return air to it at a higher-level. This idea predicts that storm power is linearly related to total rate of precipitation—this prediction matches observations (Makarieva et al. J Atmos Sci 21:386–395. Much remains unknown about how such bacteria influence the water-cycle, but we know that their abundances and their ice forming abilities vary among vegetation types, for example being less abundant on conifer trees than most angiosperm species (Lindow et al. 2011). For example, we know that the flow of water vapour from the land surface depends on many factors, not all of which are fully characterised or represented in models (and the many simulations, such as the IPCC scenarios, that depend on these). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 402:44–54. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 98:589–602, Huang G, Hayes PE, Ryan MH, Pang J, Lambers H (2017) Peppermint trees shift their phosphorus-acquisition strategy along a strong gradient of plant-available phosphorus by increasing their transpiration at very low phosphorus availability. Observations indicate that changes in forest cover influence the local and regional climate. For example, one study found that oil palm plantations in Malaysia emitted about seven times more isoprene per unit area than the forest they replaced (Hewitt et al. Geophys Res Lett 36:LT23805. 2017). potassium rich dust over the Amazon (Poehlker et al. In: Rhythms in Plants. They also explained monsoon cycles as a result of the seasonal switch as land-ocean temperatures gradients switch direction from warmer-ocean to warmer-land and back. Google Scholar, Roderick ML, Hobbins MT, Farquhar GD (2009) Pan evaporation trends and the terrestrial water balance. One pantropical evaluation examined rainfall across the tropics: for each location the researchers identified the path of the local wind over the previous 10 days and found that those that had traversed closed forest typically produced more than twice as much rain as those that had traversed open land (Spracklen et al.

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