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Nov 28

how and when difficulties are overcome; ~ Title of journal or book (underlined) The theory contains, however, fatal flaws. synthesised this information to identify a research need; The other skills are critical thinking, problem solving and dissemination. Equal Opportunties; Improving Practice; Impact Analysis). There is a growing critique of the current practice of careers guidance and counselling which is based on theory derived from quantitative research methods. Such differences can be categorised into two main traditions: quantitative (positivist, natural-science based, hypothetico-deductive) and qualitative (interpretative, ethnographic). They deal more in meanings, experiences and descriptions. Theories informing current guidance and counselling policy practice have been developed mainly by psychologists operating from scientific positivist paradigms of research using quantitative methods. Blaxter et al (1996) identify four common concerns about reading for research: the volume of literature: how do you get to grips with this? over a two year period) are all examples of natural experiments which would be legitimate areas for research inquiry using a qualitative approach. accounts of the context relating to your project An in-depth study. Hodkinson, P., Sparkes, A.C. & Hodkinson, H. (1996) Triumphs and Tears: young people, markets and the transition from school to work, London, David Fulton Publishers. Your research should respect this. Inducing them to commit acts diminishing their self-esteem. A third criterion for judging research in the area of guidance and counselling is relevance. This section will help you to decide how to collect the evidence you require for your research project. Hackett (1997) identifies several problems in trying to apply current theory to girls and women: 'I am suggesting the need for formal testing of competing models as well as attempts at unification and integration....we also need to incorporate issues of sexism, racism and their interaction, along with considerations of relational orientation, support and barriers into all our developing conceptions of women's career psychology’ (p187). If your have undertaken a qualitative study or have huge quantities of data, then you may need to include some discussion and not just description in this section. Identify any chapters that you think may be of particular relevance and focus on them, again starting from the introduction and/or conclusion. Year of publication Because much of what McNiff (1992) discusses is applicable to a careers guidance and counselling context, a summary of some of the points she makes on validity follows. There are a number of devices for checking reliability in scales and tests. She discusses the need to triangulate across different data sources using focus groups, diaries, archival documents, or observations, concluding that 'future research on this model will also benefit from the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods' (p186). Negotiate reports for various levels of release. Qualitative researchers are also interested in 'natural' experiments. Edited texts and literature reviews are also particularly useful for research purposes. would an interviewer obtain a similar picture using the procedures on different occasions? This mode of study will have implications for the relationship fostered with the subjects in the research (refer to 'ethics' in 1.6, and 'access' in 3.4). You may already have been involved in research connected with your professional role and this may have been undertaken without much direct reading (e.g. For applications for external funding, a detailed costing has to be submitted, and if successful, it is likely that you will have to adhere fairly closely to the original costing submitted. Report progress: Title (underlined) Contribution from Jenny Bimrose, Warwick Institute for Employment Research (2003). 3.5 Managing your research project. approach another institution; Note also that square brackets are used for [medium] and [access date]. Before your next job interview, research both the position and the company you are interviewing for. justify your interpretation by anticipating counter arguments; and Consequently, it has been embraced enthusiastically by policy makers and barely questioned by the majority of practitioners. It is a difficult skill to develop but important for successful research. Reliability is the extent to which a test or procedure produces similar results under constant conditions on all occasions. When examining the evidence, we need to employ much the same means to assess its validity as we applied to the claim itself (plausibility and credibility) - and may require even more evidence! Identifying key texts by noting those that are referred to repeatedly. Often, though, researchers have to produce the data they need for analysis themselves. in studies seeking to promote individual change). Articles and Chapters in Books Client validation: It is particularly useful to get the reactions of the clients themselves. Motivation and confidence in taking responsibility fo… The skills used in the analysis phase of conducting research are the analytical skills previously described. Problems that may arise can range from those relating directly to the research process (for example, the response rate is very low), to problems in other areas in your life (for example, changing your job or falling ill). Note that round brackets are used for (year) and (edition). (1997:203) or (Smith et al., 1997:203). Whether you’re looking for the best price on a product or researching a topic for a school project, you’re using research skills. Intentional critical reflection: where research inquiry occurs as a result of critical reflection, a desire to explore an intuitive understanding of practice and communicate it to others. Ethics refers to rules of conduct, and adopting an ethical approach involves conformity to a code or set of principles. For example: Expressing the hypothesis in operational terms (i.e. Make sure you understand the extent to which the texts that you are using make use of original data: primary sources: contain original data; Research skills require good communication skills to present the results of your research. Whichever theories actually inform current practice, there is emerging consensus around the inadequacies of these theories. (1995) Current Theoretical Issues in Vocational Psychology: Convergence, Divergence, and Schism in Walsh, W.B. alternate forms method: where equivalent versions of the same items in the test are given and results correlated; Reading is an integral part of this process. You can update your cookie preferences at any time. Will individuals participating be protected, not only from any direct effects of the intervention, but also by the investigator ensuring that the reporting of the study maintains confidentiality? view research writing as contested terrain, within which alternative views and positions may be taken up; 'Quantitative research is concerned with the collection and analysis of data in numeric form. Cryer (1996:51) identifies some examples of research outcomes, which are relevant to a guidance context: A new product e.g. critical turning points, etc. cards on books in one section, cards on articles in another, etc.). & Borgen, F.H. to contain more or less information) and the potential for keeping cards for various sources in different sections (e.g. What, then, are the concerns now being expressed about the limitations of this research method? It is also good preparation for when you may wish to submit a formal application for funding for research. Apart from libraries, you will need to use a wide variety of other sources for your reading. Methodological accounts are also valuable sources. For example, you would need a large enough sample to ensure your data is statistically significant.

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