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[11], Of Locke's major claims in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Some Thoughts Concerning Education, two played a defining role in eighteenth-century educational theory. "[48], In his "Essay on the Poor Law," Locke turns to the education of the poor; he laments that "the children of labouring people are an ordinary burden to the parish, and are usually maintained in idleness, so that their labour also is generally lost to the public till they are 12 or 14 years old. A dynamic table of contents enables to jump directly to the chapter selected. In Britain, it was considered the standard treatment of the topic for over a century. "[34] In the Second Treatise on Government (1689), he contends that it is the parents' duty to educate their children and to act for them because children, though they have the ability to reason when young, do not do so consistently and are therefore usually irrational; it is the parents' obligation to teach their children to become rational adults so that they will not always be fettered by parental ties. "Locke on the Education of Paupers. Moreover, he argues that parents should, above all, attempt to create a "habit" of thinking rationally in their children. One of Locke's conclusions in Some Thoughts Concerning Education is that he "think[s] a Prince, a Nobleman, and an ordinary Gentleman's Son, should have different Ways of Breeding. [13] In his Essay Locke posits an "empty" mind—a tabula rasa—that is "filled" by experience. "[47] As Peter Gay writes, "[i]t never occurred to him that every child should be educated or that all those to be educated should be educated alike. "John Locke and Isaac Watts: Understanding as Conduct. In the Essay, in which he first introduces the theory of the association of ideas, Locke warns against letting "a foolish maid" convince a child that "goblins and sprites" are associated with the darkness, for "darkness shall ever afterwards bring with it those frightful ideas, and they shall be so joined, that he can no more bear the one than the other. ", Ezell, Margaret J. M. "John Locke’s Images of Childhood: Early Eighteenth Century Responses to Some Thoughts Concerning Education. [35], Locke does not dedicate much space in Some Thoughts Concerning Education to outlining a specific curriculum; he is more concerned with convincing his readers that education is about instilling virtue and what Western educators would now call critical-thinking skills. (A Note on John Locke's Educational Thought)", Yolton, John. [32], What is important to understand is what exactly Locke means when he advises parents to treat their children as reasoning beings. "[52] Martin Simons states that Locke "suggested, both by implication and explicitly, that a boy's education should be along the lines already followed by some girls of the intelligent genteel classes. "[65] In many ways, despite Locke's continuing influence, as these authors point out, the twentieth century has been dominated by the "nature vs. nurture" debate in a way that Locke's century was not. [40] Locke's curricular recommendations reflect the break from scholastic humanism and the emergence of a new kind of education—one emphasising not only science but also practical professional training. Tarcov argues that this suggests children can be considered rational only in that they respond to the desire to be treated as reasoning creatures and that they are "motivated only [by] rewards and punishments" to achieve that goal. According to James A. Secord, an eighteenth-century scholar, Newbery included Locke's educational advice to legitimise the new genre of children's literature. In describing the mind in these terms, Locke was drawing on Plato's Theatetus, which suggests that the mind is like a "wax tablet". [57] Moreover, compared to other pedagogical theories, such as those in the best-selling conduct book The Whole Duty of a Woman (1696), the female companion to The Whole Duty of Man (1657), and Rousseau's Emile (1762), which both proposed entirely separate educational programs for women, Locke's Some Thoughts appears far more egalitarian. In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), Locke outlined a new theory of mind, contending that the gentleman's mind was a tabula rasa or "blank slate"; that is, it did not contain any innate ideas. Systems of teaching children through their senses proliferated throughout Europe. Read 32 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. [2] Curiously, though, Locke proclaims throughout his text that his is a revolutionary work; as Nathan Tarcov, who has written an entire volume on Some Thoughts, has pointed out, "Locke frequently explicitly opposes his recommendations to the 'usual,' 'common,' 'ordinary,' or 'general' education. (A Note on John Locke's Educational Thought). This interpretation is supported by a letter he wrote to Mary Clarke in 1685 stating that "since therefore I acknowledge no difference of sex in your mind relating ... to truth, virtue and obedience, I think well to have no thing altered in it from what is [writ for the son]. During the eighteenth century alone, Some Thoughts was published in at least 53 editions: 25 English, 16 French, six Italian, three German, two Dutch, and one Swedish. Locke firmly believed that children should be exposed to harsh conditions while young to inure them to, for example, cold temperatures when they were older: "Children [should] be not too warmly clad or covered, winter or summer" (Locke's emphasis), he argues, because "bodies will endure anything that from the beginning they are accustomed to. He writes: "the little and almost insensible impressions on our tender infancies have very important and lasting consequences. TO EDWARD CLARKE, of Chipley, Esq. [36] Locke maintains that parents or teachers must first teach children how to learn and to enjoy learning. Locke was convinced that children could reason early in life and that parents should address them as reasoning beings. This education "will not so perfectly suit the education of daughters; though where the difference of sex requires different treatment, it will be no hard matter to distinguish" (Locke's emphasis). in Frances A. Yates, "Giodano Bruno's Conflict with Oxford. ", Gay, Peter. ", Secord, James A. Throughout the Essay, Locke bemoans the irrationality of the majority and their inability, because of the authority of custom, to change or forfeit long-held beliefs. Locke believed that the purpose of education was to bring children up to be virtuous, using the power of reason to overcome desire. In the years following the publication of Locke's work, Etienne Bonnot de Condillac and Claude Adrien Helvétius eagerly adopted the idea that people's minds were shaped through their experiences and thus through their education. [33], Ultimately, Locke wants children to become adults as quickly as possible. Such advice (whether followed or not) was quite popular; it appears throughout John Newbery's children's books in the middle of the eighteenth century, for example, the first best-selling children's books in England. John Locke’s published Some Thoughts Concerning Education in 1693 at the request of friends Mr. and Mrs. Edward Clarke, who sought advice on raising their young son. Along with Rousseau's Emile (1762), Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education was one of the foundational eighteenth-century texts on educational theory. "Letter to Mrs. Clarke, February 1685. "[3], As England became increasingly mercantilist and secularist, the humanist educational values of the Renaissance, which had enshrined scholasticism, came to be regarded by many as irrelevant. [51], Locke wrote Some Thoughts Concerning Education in response to his friend Edward Clarke's query on how to educate his son, so the text's "principal aim", as Locke states at the beginning, "is how a young gentleman should be brought up from his infancy." [25] This passage suggests that, for Locke, education was fundamentally the same for men and women—there were only small, obvious differences for women. Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a 1693 treatise on the education of gentlemen written by the English philosopher John Locke. ", Leites, Edmund. Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education was a runaway best-seller. Copyright © 2020 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. in John Cleverley and D.C. Phillips,, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Chambliss, J. J. "[37] But Locke does offer a few hints as to what he thinks a valuable curriculum might be. ", Locke, John. Tarcov claims Locke treated his readers as his friends and they responded in kind. Locke also recommended, for example, that every (male) child learn a trade. Locke was also at the forefront of the scientific revolution and advocated the teaching of geography, astronomy, and anatomy. "[18] That is, the "associations of ideas" made when young are more significant than those made when mature because they are the foundation of the self—they mark the tabula rasa. Locke's imprimatur would ensure the genre's success. "[17], Locke also discusses a theory of the self. "[46], While it is possible to apply Locke's general principles of education to all children, and contemporaries such as Coste certainly did so, Locke himself, despite statements that may imply the contrary, believed that Some Thoughts applied only to the wealthy and the middle-class (or as they would have been referred to at the time, the "middling sorts").

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