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Nov 28

That major disaster still affects the populations in the region and still has a major impact on people's attitude to nuclear power. It is more than 50 years since the first - and only - atomic bombs were used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Nuclear techniques have been applied to a range of pollution problems including smog formation, sulphur dioxide contamination of the atmosphere, sewage dispersal from ocean outfalls, and oil spills. The benefit to humanity of sterilisation by radiation is tremendous. The function of many common consumer products is dependent on the use of small amounts of radioactive material. * 23,000 six-day TBq is on the basis of activity at six days from production reference point, i.e. Here on earth, however, it is far more difficult to artificially create the conditions required for a self-sustaining, net power producing reaction in the case of fusion than in the case of fission. Diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine use radiopharmaceuticals (or radiotracers) which emit gamma rays from within the body. Nuclear power plants generally use more of their electricity generating capacity on an annual basis than hydropower facilities. And we know that throughout history fire let loose has brought immeasurable destruction to villages, cities and forests. About 40% of it is supplied by MDS Nordion, 25% from Mallinckrodt (formerly Covidien), 17% from IRE, and 10% from NTP. Although some foreign nuclear power plants have as many as eight reactors… Over the last ten years the IAEA has supported almost 160 projects worth 20 million dollars to help Member States develop national infrastructure in isotope hydrology applications. Then, just ten years ago, there was Chernobyl when a nuclear power reactor of very special design surged out of control during an ill-conceived experiment and hurled radioactivity into the sky. In performing our statutory tasks, we have accumulated a rich experience in serving the international community in two major respects - as an institution generating norms and providing services and assistance for the use of peaceful nuclear technology and acting as what might be termed external auditors to keep track of stocks of nuclear materials to give confidence that they are not diverted for weapons purposes. It is a growing business and the IAEA has been active to help transfer this technology to South East Asia, under a long-standing and very successful regional co-operation agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA). The IAEA has a dedicated isotope hydrology laboratory that supports development activities in Member States. A new field is targeted alpha therapy (TAT), especially for the control of dispersed cancers. Competent national authorities have therefore designated SSDLs, in a programme started in 1976, to provide certified calibrations. The short range of very energetic alpha emissions in tissue means that a large fraction of that radiative energy goes into the targeted cancer cells once a carrier, such as a monoclonal antibody, has taken the alpha-emitting radionuclide to exactly the right places. Not having much money he lived in modest accommodation and ate his meals with his landlady. Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. Cancerous growths are sensitive to damage by radiation, which may be external (using a gamma beam from a cobalt-60 source), or internal (using a small gamma or beta radiation source). By this ingenious and original technique you can virtually eliminate sulphur and nitrogen emissions to the environment. A conference in Geneva in the 1950s revealed vast amounts of thitherto secret scientific data and raised tremendous hopes for a new nuclear era. Before I do so, however, I must acknowledge what is implicit in the title of this lecture on the good uses of nuclear energy, namely that there are also uses which are not good. Nuclear decay processes are used in niche applications such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Nuclear energy could be used to make hydrogen or atomic bombs. I would like to point out before this audience, however, that nuclear power may have several other uses than electricity generation. Where biofertilizers are applied, production has been raised by 25 percent in countries like Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. You are familiar with the sleeping sickness, transmitted by the tsetse fly. This is a formidable and expensive scientific and technological challenge. Yet in many parts of the world fresh water has always been scarce and in others it is becoming so. I turn now to comment on the good use of nuclear techniques in the field of agriculture - a key area for the developing world. The emissions from the radiotracers are detected by the imaging device, which provides pictures and molecular information. Although regrettable, this is perhaps after all not so surprising. In fact, the breeder uses the energy contents of uranium some 40 times more effectively than an ordinary light water reactor. These two dramatic cases certainly remind us of the destructive potential of the atom turned loose. Registered office: Tower House, 10 Southampton Street, London, WC2E 7HA, United Kingdom, Reuse of World Nuclear Association Content, Radioisotopes in Water Resources and the Environment, Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Development.

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