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Nov 28

This is a CPU chip containing 22 processors and cache memory implemented by 7.2 billion transistors and operating at a clock switching speed of up to 3.8 GHz. From the instruction set of the processor, it builds the notion of process. Hist. The widespread use of bytecode still urges us to consider how a dishonest bytecode interpreter creator could harm us. Documented instructions can have undocumented side effects that leak information from memory and send it on to a communication channel. Such ways are quite easy to find, since the bytecode interpreter is in full control of everything an application does. In the latter case, we must assume that the product of the untrusted vendor is integrated into an already existing distributed system. All of these elements can be implemented by transistors and logic gates. It stems from the need to be able to virtualize a computer so that it appears as several computers, allowing the same piece of equipment to run multiple operating systems at the same time. As an example, your e-mail client is built on top of at least three different layers of path-finding systems before your machine is able to talk to your mail server. (P eople, H ardware, S oftware, D ata, I nformation, P rocedures) Both memory circuits and communication circuits can be exploited by an untrusted vendor. Firmware is often described as something residing in between hardware and software. Not logged in There are a number of ways a transistor can become unstable or stop working as intended. All of these elements can be implemented by transistors and logic gates. In this chapter, we describe the most important of these layers and conclude on how each layer can be exploited by a dishonest maker of ICT equipment. ( Log Out /  It allows the same executable Java bytecode to run on a vast set of different platforms, from huge servers down to handheld devices. and information. The decision to buy electronic devices will rarely encompass all the infrastructure necessary to make the device work. : Hypervisor-based fault tolerance. However important, the transistor is conceptually a very simple thing. Early on, it became clear that the exact operation of a computer could be coded into memory itself. Circuits implementing a Boolean function are generally called logic gates and, through clever combinations of such gates, all the computing functions of a modern computer can be constructed. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1985), Rekhter, J.: NSFNET backbone SPF based interior gateway protocol. If we do not trust the maker of the hardware, however, this assumption is completely broken. Each processor model has its own unique instruction set, which can be quite large; the number of transistors needed to implement these instructions is therefore also quite high. The three main types of selection statements are "if," "if/else" and "switch" statements. : Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park’s Code-Breaking Computers. The digital age has transformed the way young people communicate, network, seek help, access information and learn. Before that, in the next chapter, we will discuss the design process of ICT equipment to understand how a dishonest vendor could introduce malicious functionality into a product. If cryptographic software runs on untrusted hardware, there is no reason to believe that the system is secure. In the latter case, a new challenge arises, in that the new component could create chaos in the existing distributed system by behaving in unpredicted and malicious ways. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Information: data that is converted to give it a meaning. First, if I were to send an e-mail to my colleague in the office next door, the process easily involves more than a hundred devices over two continents. Procedures: a series of actions conducted in a certain order to make sure the system runs smoothly. 2. It can therefore implement kill switches based on given inputs and leak any information that is made available to the application itself. Types of ICT systems :The are three main types of ICT system to be considered for GCSE (GSS) are: Information systems: This type of ICT system is focused on managing data and information. In other cases, the system is open, in the sense that new components can be added continuously and these new components can come from different vendors. Non-volatile memory is generally slower in operation; therefore all computers presently uses volatile memory for registers and other memory close to the core of the architecture. Starting from the instruction sets of the underlying hardware, the operating system [8] is a piece of software that builds higher-level abstractions and concepts that are closer to what a user or programmer will need. Still, when what we fear is wrongdoing on the part of the maker of the equipment, we do have some defences against the maker of applications. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. These thin layers of software are called hardware adaptation layers for the core part of a computer and device drivers for peripheral equipment. ( Log Out /  What drives the actions of the ICT system forward are the circuits of logic gates that perform actions on the memory and the communication channels. In 1965, Gordon Moore observed that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit seemed to double every two years. To remember the components, use this sentence, (People, Hardware, Software, Data, Information, Procedures). The information requirements for users at each level differ. An example that illustrates some of the complexity is the 22-core Intel Xeon Broadwell E5 [6]. Software: the name given to computer programs. Information systems are the foundation for conducting business today. All information trusted to the distributed system could leak and the system itself can be used to gain access to resources that should be secured by the operating system. If it runs on a virtualized platform, we would also need to include the hypervisor in the study. Seifert, R.: Gigabit Ethernet: Technology and Applications for High-Speed LANs. What theories and models are used by the most cited publications (articles and books) to analyze and understand ICT system implementation and adoption?

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